3.Materials have helped you find it, in the zip package, please open to view!
4. Please write the left part according to the plan and references that I have found (you can also add references if needed)
Chang in Journalism Final Assignment
Internet brings digital age of Web 2.0, which helps realise more diverse ways of
information dissemination and further leads to transformation of news production and
distribution. Digital media provide journalists and news organizations new space for
news releasing as well as a new channel for audience to receive news. Social media
support users’ participation and offer more opportunities for potential online
connections. In this way, enormous posts, news and opinions from no matter official
accounts of professional institutions or ordinary users update in real time on social
media (Thuseethan & Vasanthapriyan, 2015). Social media begin to play its roles of
transmitting online news and bring up revolution of digital journalism by virtue of its
advantages of reachability.
Since social media bring new form of the circulation of information, those social
media platforms change the relationship between news publishers and audience. In
the past, professional journalists hold authority to edit resources and release news,
however, recently, everyone can become a reporter as social media reduce barriers to
online news production. Furthermore, the abundant online information and options
gradually make news consumers become unwilling to pay for news (Kerrigan &
Graham, 2010), and traditional news organisations’ operation strategies are
profoundly influenced by audience’s behaviour changing. Large social media
companies in the world such as Facebook, Twitter and YouTube perform as news
platform in the Web 2.0 and challenge the traditional attributions of journalism, which
brings threats and opportunities for the revolution of journalism.
Transformation of journalism on social media (800)
Thanks to social-networking services straightforward tools that provided by social
media, online users participant in the online news not only as consumers but also as
creators. Individuals have chances to produce user-generated contents (UCG) base on
their perspectives and opinions (Kerrigan & Graham, 2010), more importantly, posts
contain first-hand news source can be spread into the bloodstream to the social media
space in a short period of time. According to the research of Kang (2016), in 2011,
UGC videos in YouTube constituted 77.9% of the whole uploading videos.
Developing in a ‘participatory culture’ in digital space, online users who give their
voice and creations become the most productive content contributors to social media
platforms (Van Dijck, 2009). The feature of information on social media are
transnational also show in the contents that reported by consumers. Users’ report can
present latest information in any places all around the world in real times. News
readers are no longer Ordinary citizens who are the witness involve into the truth
presenting via digital networks.
Digital media create favorable conditions for citizen journalism which perform a
different news production environment. Citizens can establish multi-relationship
among online users and interact with social and political issues. Netizens become
contributors of news original resources which traditionally are specially sought by
professional journalists. Syahputra and Ritonga (2019) concluded the characteristics
of this new form of journalism; without having to satisfy the standard of news
workers, citizens can process the ‘news contents’ as public participation in anywhere,
at any time, in the world through borderless social networks. Since it is much easier
and time-saving to find valuable information on social media, many journalists utilise
social media as platform to transmit their news stories as well as source generators.
The multiple survey did by Wihbey, Joseph and Lazer, D (2019) showed that 54.8%
of journalists report by using microblogs and 56.2% of journalists frequently find
additional information on social media.
The growth of online journalism depends on popular social media companies, such as
YouTube, Facebook and Twitter, which run by efficient information dissemination
mode with large user base. YouTube, as one of the world’s largest video uploading
and playing websites, it can be considered as news media that redefine the culture of
journalism. Sumiala and Tikka (2013) called it “participatory culture” where ordinary
YouTube users join into the whole process of news making, dissemination and
commenting. Videos that can be shared on online websites and social media improved
its visibility which can attract more news audience to get involve into the circulation
of information. Comparing to conventional news institutions, news in YouTube can be
created by professional reporters, at the same time, individuals’ voice from amateur
YouTubers (vloggers) can also broadcast the news content and act as citizen
journalists (Sumiala & Tikka, 2013). The updates are available 24 hours a day, which
also exhibits the advantages of digital media like YouTube; users-generated news can
spread cross borders and time zones and reach more readers; have more profound
Social media develop new model of engagement with news audience. Sumiala and
Tikka (2015) pointed the news-making procedure represents that digital platform like
YouTube forms the “new rituals of participation”, for instance, on 31 May 2010,
professional news agency Russia Today released a reporting about Israeli Navy attack
through YouTube, and it received 13 relevant responding videos from other
YouTubers including citizen reporters and professional journalists. This example
indicates YouTubers can act actively when that interact with professional news
creators in this online platform. This mode of audience taking part in the news event
breaks the previous routine of one-way communication. A further distinction of
comprehensive interpretations towards news possesses characteristic of subjectivity,
which is different from traditional journalistic routines but facilitating news
consumers’ engagement (Sumiala & Tikka, 2015). In the process of interaction,
online users are allowed to recirculate news, which potentially influence others
perception of this story. News dissemination emphasises on sharing instead of
broadcasting (Carlson, M, 2018).
Potential challenges for journalism (800)
Potential benefits for journalism (500)
Stimulating public participation on social issue and convey voices in the public sphere
Thuseethan, S., & Vasanthapriyan, S. (2015). Social media as a new trend in Sri
Lankan digital journalism: A surveillance. Asian Social Science, 11(10), 86.
Kerrigan, F., & Graham, G. (2010). Interaction of regional news-media production
and consumption through the social space. Journal of marketing management, 26(3-
Kang, I. (2016). Web 2.0, UGC, and citizen journalism: Revisiting South Korea’s
OhmyNews model in the age of social media. Telematics and Informatics, 33(2), 546-
Van Dijck, J. (2009). Users like you? Theorizing agency in user-generated
content. Media, culture & society, 31(1), 41-58.
Sumiala, J., & Tikka, M. (2015). News rituals of participation: Negotiating
temporalities, categories, and hierarchies of news-making on
YouTube. Anthropological Notebooks, 21(3).
Syahputra, I., & Ritonga, R. (2019). Citizen journalism and public participation in the
era of new media in Indonesia: From street to tweet. Media and Communication, 7(3),
Wihbey, J., Joseph, K., & Lazer, D. (2019). The social silos of journalism? Twitter,
news media and partisan segregation. New Media & Society, 21(4), 815-835.
Sumiala, J. M., & Tikka, M. (2013). Broadcast yourself—Global news! A
Netnography of the “flotilla” news on YouTube. Communication, Culture &
Critique, 6(2), 318-335.
Carlson, M. (2018). Facebook in the News. Digital Journalism, (1), 4.