1. word count requirement ：No more than 3000 words（Including references）
2. Topic requirements：
a) Students are encouraged to select an area of interest early and collect relevant materials for
writing it. They can seek the advice of the course lecturer in case of doubt or difficulty.
b) The topic should preferably be an innovation implemented in the school you have studied for
the group presentation in Hong Kong or other cities in Mainland.
c) The paper structure should include rationale and importance of an innovation implemented in
the school you have identified. A literature review on educational innovation and change is
needed. Drawing the insights of the review, you then evaluate how the innovation(s) can be,
positively, negatively or both, led for expected school improvement, followed by discussion on
the evaluation. Then, a conclusion summarises the essay.
d) Evaluate and discuss how the innovation should be introduced, led and managed for the
better outcomes of school improvement and effectiveness.
e) The assessment criteria are:
(1) Rationale and importance of the innovation implemented in the school
(2) Insights of innovation and change in school through a brief literature review
(3) Analysis of the innovation based on the insights drawn from the review
3.a. Positive, negative or both effects of the innovation on the school’s improvement
3.b. Discussion on the effectiveness of the innovation
(4) Citations of relevant literature with properly formatted references
(5) Quality of the writing
3. format requirement ：APA 6 th
4. Course content reference：
1 1. Overview of the course
2. Core concepts of change and innovations in education
2 1. Models of change processes for innovations in education
2. Forces of change
3 Education reform, changes and innovations in Hong Kong over the past 24 years
– Formation of the groups for the project
4 Learning beyond classroom: Analysis of a case study of
school education development with related theories/models you have learned.
5 Principals and teachers’ roles as change agents
6 1. Leading and managing change for positive change culture
2. Resistance to change and coping strategies
7 Evaluation of educational change and innovation
5. Recommended references：
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leaders. London: Corwin Press.
Blasé, J., & Blasé, J.R. (1994). Empowering teachers: What successful principals do.
Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press, Inc.
Bush, T., & Middlewood, D. (2013). Leading and managing people in education (3rd ed.).
London, UK: SAGE.
Calabrese, R. L. (2002). The leadership assignment: Creating change. Boston, Mass.: Allyn
Cheng, Y. N. A., & Szeto, E.. (2016). Teacher leadership development and principal
facilitation: Novice teachers’ perspectives. Teaching and Teacher Education, 58, 140-148.
Crowther, F. (2009). Developing teacher leaders: How teacher leadership enhances school
success (2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press.
Duke, D. (2004). The challenges of educational change. San Francisco: Pearson Education.
Fullan, M. (2010). All systems go: The change imperative for whole system reform. London:
Fullan, M. (1993). Change forces probing the depths of educational reform. New York:
Fullan, M. (2009). Large-scale reform comes of age. Journal of Educational Change,10, 101-
Fullan, M. (2001). Leading in a culture of change. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Fullan, M. (2009). The challenge of change: Start school improvement now (2nd ed.).
London: Corwin Press.
Fullan, M. (2007). The new meaning of educational change (4th ed.). Columbia: Teachers
Fullan, M. (2008). The six secrets of change: What the best leaders do to help their
organizations survive and thrive. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Hayes, J. (2002). The theory and practice of change management. New York: Palgrave
Lee, J., Lo, L. & Walker, A. (2004). Partnership and change: Toward school development.
Hong Kong: Chinese University Press.
Leithwood, K., Jantzi, D. & Steinbach, R. (2006). Changing leadership for changing times.
Philadelphia: Open University Press.
Lick, W. D., Clauset, H. K., & Murphy, U. C. (2013). School can change: A step-by-step
change creation system for building innovative schools and increasing student learning.
Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin.
Morris, P. (2003). Education reform and policy implication in Hong Kong. Journal of
Education Policy, 18(1), 71-84.
Morrison, K. (2002). School leadership and complexity theory. New York: Routledge.
Niemi, H., Multisilta, J., Lipponen, L. & Vivitsou, M. (2014). Finnish innovations
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technologies and skills. Paris, French: OECD Publishing.
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and innovation. Paris, French: OECD Publishing.
Schleicher, A. (2012). Preparing teachers and developing school leaders for the 21st
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Szeto, E., & Cheng, Y. N. A. (2017). Developing early career teachers’ leadership through
teacher learning. International Studies in Educational Administration, 45(1), 45-64.
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