Biology 100 – Human Biology
TOPIC: Sugar…Food, Poison, or Both?
• Read the article from OneMedical.com titled “Is Sugar Really Toxic” posted on iLearn.
• Gather additional information on the topic from a combination of primary resources (posted
on iLearn) and TWO secondary sources for your OPINION section of the paper (from
journals, magazines, newspapers, other sources, etc.). Use critical thinking skills to assess the
scientific reliability of your sources. Be especially cautious with online sources!
Paper Length: Between 4 – 4.5 pages
(for papers either shorter than 4 pages or over 5 pages in length, 10 points will be deducted)
A. Questions (20 points):
Answer the following questions using information provided directly from the article:
Have obesity rates in America increased, decreased, or stabilized over the past 20 years? Have any studies
linked drinking large amounts of sugar-sweetened beverages with childhood obesity in that time?
What is HFCS? What is Sucrose? Where do these sugars come from? Do they both contain smaller glucose
and fructose sugars in equal amounts? Is there any difference between HFCS and Sucrose (are they
chemically equivalent)? What are the major diseases that Dr. Robert Lustig links with too much fructose
consumption over time? Are Americans on average consuming too many sugar calories? If so, by how
many? Does Dr. Lustig believe that all sources of foods containing fructose are bad for us, or only those
with added sugars such as processed foods and drinks (including soft drinks and fruit juices) with high
levels of HFCS and Sucrose?
Do most cells in our body use both glucose and fructose for breaking down into energy? In which organ is
the fructose we eat metabolized? How can the body be hurt when too much citrate is produced in the liver
from breaking down fructose? List the 2 major diseases this can cause. Also, can eating too much fructose
also lead to inflammation and high blood pressure?
B. Alternative Scientific Theories (20 points):
Why don’t many experts buy Dr. Lustig’s “toxic-sugar” theory? List the main criticisms of David Katz and
others who do not believe that “fructose is a poison.” Specifically, include in your discussion their main
criticisms of Dr. Lustig’s research: Is Dr. Lustig a fructose researcher? Did he generate his own
experimental data based upon scientific method? Do the scientific papers he has published focus upon data
generated from subjects within too narrow of demographic categories (obesity, age, gender, ethnicity)
which might introduce confounding variables ignored in his analysis? Did any of Dr. Lustig’s prior
research before the famous lecture outlining his general theory of “toxic sugar” focus on fructose?
Now consider how Dr. Lustig's theory is also supported by other experts. Provide examples from the
article. Specifically, include in your discussion if rising rates of obesity have paralleled an increase in sugar
consumption over time, if the way our body metabolizes fructose is harmful, possible links between juice
consumption and obesity in children and adolescents, and the effects of high fructose consumption to create
metabolic syndrome (liver problems) as seen in animal studies.
C. Analysis and Scientific Method (20 points)
PICK ANY ONE of the following studies referenced at the end of the article which provide recent evidence
in support of Dr. Lustig’s “Toxic-Sugar” theory:
1.) Nurse’s Health Study
Read the abstract: http://www.bmj.com/content/347/bmj.f5001
2.) The Framingham Heart Study
Read the article: http://www.nih.gov/news/pr/jul2007/nhlbi-23.htm
3.) Stanholpe and Havel Study
Read the section comparing effects of fructose and glucose consumption:
Using the primary source article for this study, determine the following: Was the experimental
design valid based upon scientific method or could it be improved? If so, how? Specifically, did
the researchers conduct the research themselves? Does or should this matter? Why or why not?
Did the researchers study human or animal subjects? Were the sample sizes large enough in both
control and experimental groups? Was a placebo used? What was the duration of the study? Was
this conducted over a long enough period of time? Was this a “controlled experiment”? Where
were there possible opportunities for confounding variables to arise? Could either subject or
researcher bias have confounded the results? How would you know? Was this a blind or double
blind study? Who were the subjects? Were the demographic groups studied (based upon age,
genetics, gender, ethnicity, obesity) broad enough or narrow enough to make either specific or
more general conclusions about the long term effects of fructose consumption in these groups?
D.) Opinion (15 points)
Finally, in your opinion, do you believe the experiment you have analyzed supports Lustig’s “Toxic-Sugar”
Theory, or is more information needed? How would this research be relevant to modern life, if this theory
is in fact “proven” to be true? List any potential implications for global and local communities.
Present your discussion as a coherent, persuasive argument that shows some “depth” of thinking on your
part. (Remember to cite your sources.)
E.) Format: Punctuation, spelling, grammar, structure, bibliography. (25 points)
STYLE: The paper must be typed using a 12–point font, 1–1.5 spacing, and 1” margins.
• The paper should be well organized and well thought out, with a beginning, middle, and end.
• The paper should be written in 3 rd person as a scientific summary and analysis. For the
Opinion section only, you may write in 1 st person. Use proper English grammar and spelling
with no contradictions and with all thoughts presented in concise, complete sentences which
are organized into paragraphs. Be sure to spell check and proofread!
• Most importantly, the entire paper should be written in your own words. You may have
occasional quotes for which you would have to cite a reference However, the majority of the
paper should be written by you. A score of zero will be given for any paper containing
plagiarism (copying paragraphs, or even a sentence, from any source) or for any paper
showing signs of having been written in conjunction with anybody.
1. In the body of your paper, sources must be cited as described below. (Note: Footnotes are not used
in science papers.)
2. At the end of your term paper, you must attach a bibliography in which you list, in proper format,
all of the sources which you used for writing this paper. Follow the bibliography format provided
Handing in Papers: On or before the due date: Friday, April 5, 2019
1.) Submit 1 hardcopy (printed paper) 4-4.5 pages in length, with a bibliography
2.) No emailed papers will be accepted.
Biology 100 – Human Biology
Biology 100 – Human Biology
TERM PAPER #1
In the last 20 years, the rates of obesity in America have dramatically increased and research evidence shows that drinking large amount of sugar-sweetened beverages correlates with the increased cases of obesity. The increase in obesity is specifically evident in children. Biology 100 – Human Biology
HFCs stands for High-Fructose Corn Syrup, a type of sweetener derived from cheaply growth corn syrup. This is a cheap sweetener which is readily available in the market at a cheap cost and is being added to most of the processed food. On the other hand, sucrose or table sugar majorly derived from sugar beets in the United States and sugar cane in the tropical region. Both sucrose and fructose contains small glucose and fructose in equal amounts. Both are also chemically equivalent………….
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