Extraordinary Chambers in the Courts of Cambodia (ECCC)
Answer only one of the following questions, in essay form (please note it is expected that you will engage
with a different topic and material than in your Reflective Essay).
• Your essay should be as near as possible to 2000 words (excluding references).
• Your essay must be typed, in 12pt font and double-spaced.
• Please submit one electronic copy of your exam via the Turnitin function (on the LMS subject site) by
4pm Tuesday June 11.
• You may submit the exam earlier than the due date.
• Please make sure you read and follow the guidelines below (especially the section on expected
• Please note that your exam will not be returned.
1. What are the major challenges to fostering sustainable environmental and economic futures in post-conflict
states? With reference to two of the three country contexts studied in this subject, identify and discuss the
political, economic, social and cultural factors that contribute to these challenges.
2. Why do state-led visions for the future so often ignore more complex issues relating to social and cultural
difference? With reference to at least two examples, discuss the implications of this for post-conflict East Timor.
3. Briefly set out the achievements of the Extraordinary Chambers in the Courts of Cambodia in terms of
reparation (restorative justice). In what ways do these achievements break new ground for Cambodians? What
are their limitations?
4. Describe and explain the relationship between land and past or present-day conflict in contemporary
5. How and why have national agencies and non-governmental organisations (NGOs) in the Philippines recently
come to work together to criminalise extensive agriculture among poor, forest reliant communities? In this
context, how and why might NGO staff and interventions work more effectively (than the state) in curbing the
local clearing and burning of forests? What are the local livelihood implications of these actions? Discuss in
relation to one or two examples.
6. Why have post-colonial governments caste dominant society into racialised hierarchies of ‘primitive and
advanced’ in terms of ethnic identity, agriculture and property rights? How have governments done this? Why are
such cases of ‘Othering’ so durable? What are the long-term implications for the indigenous poor? Discuss in
relation to one or two examples.
7. As agro-industrialisation (palm oil, rubber etc) expands in Southeast Asia, how and why might local farmers
stand to benefit and/ or lose as their lands and livelihoods are impacted by plantation systems. What are the
short- and longer-term food security implications of mono-cropped plantation systems on ancestral lands?
Discuss in relation to one or two examples.
8. Contemporary Cambodia is variously labelled a ‘post-conflict’ state, a ‘post-transitional’ state, and as engaging
in ‘transitional justice’. Choose ONE of these concepts and discuss its usefulness (or otherwise) for
understanding the Cambodian case.
9. Why are the creative arts increasingly being turned to when ‘dealing with the past’ in contemporary Cambodia?
Illustrate your argument by reference to one or two examples. Extraordinary Chambers in the Courts of Cambodia (ECCC).
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