Assignment 1: individual essay (graded)
Assignment 1 – Planning Concepts and Evolution of Approaches to Planning (1200 words)
Modern, formalized planning has shown a remarkable development trajectory in western society. While in the distant past it was largely defied and implemented by rulers and governments, if evolved with democratic institutions into policy instigated activities aimed at influencing citizen’s behavior. More recently it has moved toward a rationally-oriented scientific approach aimed at shaping the conditions under which human behavior in a complex environment may lead to socially accepted outcome.
In this context ‘Garden City’ concept is regarded as a novel idea.
- What were the main elements of the Garden City concept?
- Critically discuss the proposition that the ‘Garden City’ provides a useful model for the planning of suitable settlements for the 21st
- Describe later changes in the approach and the principle arguments which lead for a more comprehensive approach to planning of cities and regions.
- Compare and contrast modern city plans and garden city.
The assignment has to address the four questions above. The context in which planning has evolved can be traced to development of institutions ad public policy aimed at influencing people’s behavior. This generalization can be true from the beginning of industrial revolution and its consequences on existing towns and cities that witnessed massive in-migration from the county side to towns and cities which led to poor hygiene, overcrowding, pollution and unplanned growth. The ‘Garden City’ as concepts as introduced about this time when these conditions prevailed in industrial nations mainly n Europe.
‘Garden City’ defines an urban planning method in which urban planning is centred on
self-contained communities enclosed by greenbelts. It is a mixed purpose urban plan
incorporating residences, industry, and agriculture (Priemus, Button, & Nijkamp, 2007). It is
planned on a concentric pattern leaving free and open public spaces, public parks, radial
boulevards, and others. The most important principles in planning a garden city is that it should
be self-sufficient, and when the full population is reached, a new garden city develops nearby.
Howard conceptualised a central city that is surrounded by a cluster of garden cities serving
58,000 people and well linked by rail and road. While the central city would have 58,000 people
offering high order services, the garden city would have about 32,000 people housing most
residents (Fainstein & Campbell, 2003). Ideally, Howard conceptualized six garden cities
surrounding a central city, tapping a population of 250,000 people who would access the central
city within 5 to 15 minutes though road or railway (Priemus et al., 2007).